Renewable Energy

Combining expertise in all facets of renewable energy with proven project execution capabilities.

Project Execution from Concept to Operation

Sargent & Lundy Renewables Stats Graphic

Sargent & Lundy is a leader in the renewable energy sector. Our decades of experience mean our clients can trust us to provide knowledgeable, independent, and comprehensive support for evaluating, planning, designing, and deploying renewable energy and energy storage technologies.

Our services cover all renewable energy technologies for global projects of all sizes. We actively work with clients in every project lifecycle stage—from initial planning to procurement to ongoing maintenance—providing innovative solutions to their challenges. We serve as lender’s engineer, full-design architect-engineer, owner’s engineer (OE), and advisor. Our work spans technical, financial, contractual, environmental, and permitting matters and third-party reviews and analyses.

Renewable Energy Technologies

Our industry experience includes:

  • Presenting at major conferences and technical meetings, including the 2012–2019 American Wind Energy Association (AWEA) WINDPOWER conferences.
  • Serving as part of a North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) working group called “System Planning Impacts from Distributed Energy Resources,” which focuses on supporting the increasing penetration of distributed energy resources (DERs) into the bulk power system.
  • Helping establish national guidelines and standards. We were part of the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) and AWEA committee that prepared a U.S. guideline for wind turbine foundation design. We are actively involved in developing the IEC 61400-6 standard for onshore wind turbine foundation design.


Since the early 2000s, we have provided services for project developers, contractors, owners, lenders, and investors, including site screenings, project feasibility studies, resource assessments, independent engineering, interconnection planning, conceptual engineering, contract development, detailed engineering, design reviews, construction monitoring, commissioning, and operations and maintenance (O&M) support.

Select Wind Project Highlights

  • NextEra Energy Resources, LLC | 2020 | ~1.2 GW | Independent Engineer (IE)
    • Project: Three portfolios (13 sites) for partial repower.
    • Overview: Detailed analysis of existing foundations; review of electric balance-of-plant (BOP) and turbine towers.
  • Confidential Clients
    • 2020 | 160 MW | IE | Texas, U.S.
      • Project: 100-turbine project for partial repower.
      • Overview: Review foundation design, technology, site suitability, wind resource assessment, commercial agreements and permitting, and O&M cost assessment.
    • 2019–Present | 100 MW | IE | Oregon, U.S.
      • Project: One wind project.
      • Overview: Review design documents; site visits; observe engineering, procurement, and construction (EPC) contractor’s execution of construction, startup, and commissioning; confirm compliance with EPC agreement.
  • AES | 2019–Present | 28 MW | OE | Hawaii, U.S.
    • Project: Na Pua Makani.
    • Overview: Services related to development, engineering, and construction; design engineering reviews; commercial agreement technical support and field support.
  • Electric Power Research Institute | 2018
    • Project: O&M cost analysis of 102 operating wind projects (792 individual operating years).
    • Overview: Identify patterns and trends of O&M costs considering age, size, O&M approach, turbine original equipment manufacturer (OEM), and location.

Please contact us for a more detailed list.


Sargent & Lundy has supported solar projects since the late 1980s to include the BOP design engineer for the SEGS VIII, IX, and X facilities in California. Our long, successful history includes both photovoltaic (PV) and concentrating solar power (CSP) projects, providing owner’s engineering, independent engineering technical due diligence, and detailed design of solar energy generation. We also have considerable experience supporting the integration of solar and energy storage projects.

Select Solar Project Highlights

  • Confidential Clients
    • 2020–Present | 20 MW | IE | Jamaica
      • Project: Solar PV project for refinancing.
      • Overview: Solar energy yield assessment; technical due diligence for funding; construction and operations monitoring.
    • 2020–Present | 1+ GW | OE | Texas, U.S.
      • Project: Multiple utility-scale solar PV projects under development.
      • Overview: EPC bid process support and EPC design deliverable reviews, including review of design basis; technical specifications; 30%, 60%, 90%, and issued for construction (IFC) design drawings and calculations.
    • 2020–Present | 300 MW | OE | Indiana, U.S.
      • Project: Solar PV project.
      • Overview: Four-phase approach: preconstruction and development support, procurement support, project design and engineering reviews, and construction and commissioning monitoring.
    • 2020–Present | 50 MW | New Mexico, U.S.
      • Project: Solar PV + battery storage system development-stage project; acquisition due diligence.
      • Overview: Key contract/financial model, congestion and curtailment risk, environmental, and permitting reviews; independent energy yield assessment; site visit.
    • 2020–Present | 115 MW | IE | Texas, U.S.
      • Project: Due diligence for tax-equity investors.
      • Overview: Site visits; key contract/financial model and environmental and permitting reviews; solar resource and independent energy yield assessment; project design reviews.
  • ACWA Power | 2018–2019 | 700 MW | Lender’s Technical Advisor | United Arab Emirates
    • Project: Dubai Electricity and Water Authority (DEWA) CSP project; 100-MW central tower and three 200-MW parabolic trough units, all with molten-salt storage.
    • Overview: Independent technical due diligence and presentations on technology for financing.

Please contact us for a more detailed list.

Energy Storage

Sargent & Lundy’s work with energy storage systems includes industry-leading experience on battery storage system projects; a wide variety of battery storage systems, from some of the world’s largest battery storage system projects to small behind-the-meter systems; and the integration of battery storage systems with solar and other generation forms. We have experience with multiple storage technologies, including liquid-air energy storage, advanced compressed air energy storage, flow batteries, and hydrogen (for energy storage and for use as a fuel). We assist clients with technology selection and evaluation, use case analysis, procurement, design and engineering, construction management, interconnection support, permitting support, independent engineering due diligence, advisory, asset transaction services, O&M support, decommissioning support, and related services.

Select Energy Storage Project Highlights

  • Confidential Clients
    • 2021 | 115-MW/460-MWh Battery Storage System | IE | California, U.S.
      • Project: Due diligence for tax-equity investors.
      • Overview: Among the first tax-equity financed battery projects in the U.S.
    • 2020 | 63 MW (4 hours) | IE | California, U.S.
      • Project: Review of battery storage system project for power purchase agreement (PPA) offtaker.
      • Overview: Focus on operational protocols and safety designs.
    • 2020 | 40 MW (4 hours) | OE | Texas, U.S.
      • Project: Owner’s engineering support for the development of battery energy storage project.
      • Overview: Technical support for the development of battery energy storage project including RFP development (technical specifications), administration, bid reviews, EPC selection, and EPC design submittal review.
    • 2019 | 12 MW/5.4 MWh | OE | Midwestern U.S.
      • Project: Battery energy storage detailed design.
      • Overview: Detailed design services for a black-start BESS for two 115-MW combustion turbine generators.
  • Vistra | 2018–2021 | 300 MW/12000 MWh | OE | California, U.S.
    • Project: Battery storage system at Moss Landing Power Plant.
    • Overview: Detailed design services.

Please contact us for a more detailed list.


Sargent & Lundy has provided engineering support and services for all types of hydrogen projects over several decades, including hydrogen systems tied to various power sources like solar, wind, hydro, and nuclear. Our project capabilities consist of hydrogen production via electrolysis (polymer electrolyte membrane [PEM], alkaline, and solid oxide electrolysis cells [SOECs]) as well as compression, storage, blending, offloading, and other use cases. We also support hydrogen use cases for producing alternative fuels like ammonia, e-methanol, or sustainable aviation fuel (SAF). Our experience encompasses pairing different hydrogen technologies with common balance-of-plant systems, designing communication and electrical systems for seamless facility integration, hydrogen demand modeling, and forecasting.

Learn more about our hydrogen capabilities.

Biomass, Biofuels, Alternative Fuels, and Recycling

Sargent & Lundy’s involvement in the alternative fuels industry includes feasibility studies, fuel supply assessments, evaluations of technology options, siting evaluations, identification of “target” emission rates for air permitting activities, layouts, cost estimating, and other conceptual design activities. In addition, we have also investigated waste-to-energy projects and alternative fuels co-firing in existing units and new unit designs.

Select Biomass, Biofuels, Alternative Fuels, and Recycling Project Highlights

  • B&W Vølund | 2019 | Indonesia | Industrial Waste
    • Project: Detailed design.
    • Overview: Structural engineering and design for steel structure to support boiler, economizer, combustion grate, air ducts, piping, and related equipment within boiler island; connection design for high-seismic location.
  • Confidential Clients
    • 2018–Present | 30 MW
      • Project: Due diligence; biomass retrofit of existing boiler.
      • Overview: Review of boiler retrofit, plant performance, BOP upgrades, fuel sourcing, O&M, contracts, and permits; engineering oversight for nondestructive evaluation of original boiler components reused in retrofit.
    • 2009–2010 | Midwestern U.S.
      • Project: Two existing pulverized-coal boilers.
      • Overview: Evaluate conversion of boilers to burn biomass with a percentage of refuse-engineered fuel in conjunction with a repowering study; site arrangement drawings, cost estimate, new biomass material handling system layout and flow diagrams, fuel alternatives assessment, conversion technology assessment, performance optimization, project schedule, and emissions estimates for permitting input.
  • Covanta Energy LLC | 2017 | Hawaii, U.S.
    • Project: H-Power boilers and turbine generators sharing a wall on refuse-receiving areas with boilers feeding respective generators.
    • Overview: Condition assessments for fire protection, considering housekeeping, facility design, latest industry practices, and current codes and standards; walkdown of facilities; interviews of O&M staff; operation observation.

Please contact us for a more detailed list.


For hydroelectric power projects worldwide, our roles have included lender’s technical advisor, OE, and IE. Previous experience includes reviewing hydrology and energy production estimates; conducting technical, environmental, and asset acquisition due diligence reviews; and construction and performance test monitoring. We have performed over 70 construction monitoring and operations monitoring site visits.

Select Hydroelectric Project Highlights

  • International Finance Corporation | 2012–2019 | Lender’s Engineer | Turkey
    • Project: EnerjiSA Uretim portfolio (Seyhan River and Ceyhan River).
    • Overview: Construction monitoring; O&M reviews.
  • Kaukauna Utilities | 2018 | IE | Wisconsin, U.S.
    • Project: Middle Appletom Dam Hydroelectric Project.
    • Overview: Review for potential future asset acquisition; site visit and overall project review (civil/structure, mechanical, electrical, financial, and performance).
  • International Finance Corporation | 2017–2018 | 404 MW | Lender’s Engineer | Armenia
    • Project: Voroton Hydropower Cascade (three hydroelectric plants and five reservoirs).
    • Overview: Due diligence; reviews of design and comprehensive refurbishment program.

Please contact us for a more detailed list.


Previous roles for geothermal projects have included OE, lender’s technical advisor, and IE. We have worked in both the generation (geothermal power) and energy distribution (deep direct use and residential/commercial district heating) sides with a range of focuses, including individual power plants and international geothermal energy market studies. We have reviewed energy production estimates, conducted technical and environmental due diligence reviews, and prepared feasibility studies for the use of geothermal energy for electricity production or steam generation.

Select Geothermal Project Highlights

  • Confidential Client | 2019 | North and South America
    • Project: Feasibility study of geothermal energy facility.
    • Overview: Study to investigate cooling and heating of commercial and residential buildings.
  • Enel Green Power North America, Inc. | 2013 | IE | Utah, U.S.
    • Project: Cove Fort Geothermal Project.
    • Overview: Assessment for completion certification report per American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 application requirements; site visit; review project design documents and agreements.
  • Electric Research Power Institute (ERPI) | 2010
    • Project: Technology assessment guide preparation.
    • Overview: Update EPRI Technology Assessment Guide’s geothermal sections.
  • Inversiones Energeticas S.A. de C.V. | 2007–2010 | 44 MW | El Salvador
    • Project: Berlin Unit 3 direct-injection geothermal plant.
    • Overview: Engineering service.

Please contact us for a more detailed list.


Sargent & Lundy performs feasibility study, owner’s engineering, and detailed engineering of microgrid projects. We use our experience with all the technologies typically considered for use in microgrids—solar PV, diesel engines, microturbines, reciprocating engines, battery storage systems, wind turbines, and combustion turbines. Many of these technologies may capture the waste heat and operate in a combined heat and power mode to send steam or hot water to nearby homes or businesses. Our experience also includes integrating different technologies and designing the communication and electrical systems to connect the different resources.

Select Microgrids Project Experience

  • Confidential Clients
    • 2020 | Saudi Arabia
      • Project: Support for long-term build-own-operate-transfer (BOOT) proposal for utilities systems for off-grid development.
      • Overview: Use of PLEXOS for generation mix scenarios containing primarily renewable resources and battery storage systems; assess load-shifting and thermal storage opportunities for operation of district cooling plant and seawater desalination plant; network analysis studies on planned high-voltage network to ensure electrical functionality of proposed mini-grid system.
    • 2019 | Midwestern U.S.
      • Project: Microgrid study.
      • Overview: Study of diesel generator-based microgrid at existing casino integrated into solar PV field.
  • ComEd | 2019 | 2-MW/4-MWh | Illinois, U.S.
    • Project: Battery storage system portion of Bronzeville Community Microgrid.
    • Overview: Design services.
  • U.S. Military | 2015–2017 | U.S.
    • Project: Microgrid conceptual designs.
    • Overview: Assistance in development and execution of privately financed projects integrating cost-effective and cleaner energy resources for resiliency; evaluation of microgrid conceptual designs for domestic U.S. Army and Air Force bases.

Please contact us for a more detailed list.

Renewable Energy Services

Our renewable energy services help developers, owners, utilities, operators, and financiers from the beginning project stages through commercial operation and beyond. Our core services include:

  • Independent Engineering
    • Due diligence – lenders/investors, asset sale, and acquisition support.
    • Facility condition assessments.
    • Design reviews.
    • Quality assurance/quality control reviews.
    • Supplier term reviews.
    • Warranty claim evaluations.
    • Remaining useful life and life extension.
    • Financial model reviews and benchmarking.

  • Owner’s Engineer and Detailed Design
    • EPC support.
    • Technical specification development.
    • Request for proposal development and administration.
    • Bid evaluation.
    • Detailed design.
    • Fire protection design.
    • Substation integration.
    • Interconnection applications.
    • Permitting, zoning, and environmental services.
    • Microgrid and energy storage integration.
    • PPA negotiation support.
    • O&M advisory.

  • Project Development and System/Planning Support
    • Site evaluation and selection.
    • Solar and wind resource assessments.
    • Feasibility evaluations.
    • Technology and equipment selection.
    • Interconnection planning and support.
    • Conceptual designs and layouts.

  • Power System Studies and Market Modeling
    • Economic analyses and studies.
      • Production cost modeling (e.g., PLEXOS, PROMOD).
      • Resource retirement study.
      • Stochastic studies and risk analysis.
      • Net present value analysis.
      • Cost benefit analysis.
      • Identify economically advantageous locations for energy storage.
    • Feasibility/System Impact Studies and Interconnection Analyses.
      • Grid load-flow/contingency analysis.
      • Grid short-circuit analysis.
      • Grid stability analysis.
      • Subsynchronous resonance analysis.
      • DER impact analysis.
      • Transfer analysis.
    • Detailed Design Analyses and Studies.
      • Electrical studies and analyses to support design and grid connection.
      • Reactive power compensation analysis (compliant with Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) Order No. 827).
      • Cable ampacity analysis.
      • Insulation coordination and transient analysis.
      • Safety grounding analysis.
      • Protection and coordination analysis.
      • Arc flash analysis.
      • Single-line development and associated studies.
      • Short circuit ratio study.
    • Steady-state and dynamic facility models (Power System Simulation for Engineering [PSS/E]).
    • Transmission adequacy and reliability assessments.
    • Electromagnetic transients modeling and analysis.
    • Non-material change determination.

  • Asset Transaction Support and Valuations
    • Asset valuations.
    • O&M budget review.
    • Contract review and negotiation.
    • Decommissioning studies.
    • Construction financing support.

  • Planning and Advisory
    • Integrated resource planning.
    • Integrated distribution planning.
    • Electric system master planning.
    • Net zero carbon planning and high renewable penetration studies.
    • Energy storage long-term planning and roadmaps.
    • Power supply procurement support and request for proposals (RFP) management.
    • Performance, capital cost, and O&M cost estimates.
    • Remaining useful life assessments.
    • Microgrid planning and design.
    • Grid modernization consulting.

  • Engineering, Procurement, and Construction (EPC) Support
    • Engineering and detailed design.
    • Independent reviews of contractor project designs.
    • Construction management and surveillance.
    • Licensing and permitting support.
    • Technical specification.
    • Contract preparation and negotiation.
    • Vendor qualification.
    • Material controls and quality assurance.
    • Testing and commissioning.

Renewable Energy White Papers

The following white papers highlight our capabilities in select areas.

  • Battery Energy Storage Systems: Methodology for Project Risk Identification and Mitigation | Download
  • Asset Valuations in the Power Sector: Power Generation, Transmission and Distribution, Energy Storage, and Microgrids | Download
  • Wind Project Repowering: Best Practices and Insights (Focus on Partial Repowering) | Download
  • Carbon Capture Projects: Best Practices and Insights | Download
  • Wind-to-Solar Conversion: Interconnection Queue Generator Modifications | Download