Environmental Services

Our environmental specialists will help you permit, plan, and implement the most effective compliance strategy for your needs.

Delivering Integrated Environmental Solutions

Sargent & Lundy provides integrated environmental solutions that minimize your costs to comply with regulations by considering the impacts to each site as a whole. Our team consists of chemical, civil, geotechnical, and water resource and coastal engineers who successfully provide site development related design and engineering services. Our environmental services include:

Compliance Planning

Regional Haze, NSR, NAAQS, MATS, CSAPR, 316(a), 316(b), Effluent Guidelines, CCR, state regulations, emerging issues, integrated resource planning support.

Emissions Technology

Compliance solutions for both air and water quality emissions technologies, including FGD, SCR, SNCR, DSI, ACI, ESP, FF, and water and wastewater treatment.


Title V, NPDES, SWPPP, Corps of Engineers, solid waste and disposal, Nuclear Regulatory Commission, state and local, BACT and LAER evaluations.

Water Resources and Coastal

Maximize recycling of water, minimize discharge, water balance development, water quality mass balance calculations, stream characterization support, water treatment design support.

Civil / Geotechnical Engineering

Flood analysis, groundwater monitoring programs, hazard risk classification, containment dike inspections and stability analyses, impoundment and landfill design.

Read about our experience in civil engineering and design.

Read about our experience in geotechnical engineering and design.


Computational fluid dynamics (CFD), air impact (AERMOD), visibility impact (CALPUFF), thermal discharge.

Siting and Transmission Routing

GIS mapping, feasibility studies and fatal flaw evaluations, comparative site/route evaluations and rankings, environmental impact assessments.

Due Diligence

Regulatory assessments, Phase 1 environmental assessments, compliance audits, risk evaluations.


Permit conditions and regulatory requirements, remediation requirements and costs, demolition requirements and debris disposal, site restoration requirements.

Watch our webinar video on 316(b) Compliance Planning and Implementation

Read our summary of EPA’s Final Effluent Guidelines (ELG) Rule

Watch our webinar video on Regional Haze

Read about our experience in water and wastewater services

Compliance Planning

One of the biggest challenges utilities face is planning for compliance, given multiple environmental regulations, regulatory uncertainty, and site-specific requirements. Whether for a single unit or for an entire fleet, compliance planning requires in-depth understanding of power plant operations, regulatory requirements, and technologies available for compliance. Sargent & Lundy’s environmental services team consists of regulatory specialists who focus on reviewing and understanding the regulations as well as process engineers, who focus on understanding the technologies that reduce air and water emissions. We draw upon extensive experience retrofitting air quality and water quality control systems at existing power plants and can help you achieve compliance evaluations with realistic capital and O&M costs and account for site-specific limitations. Additional information on example projects and services related to compliance planning is available below.

Emission Reduction Technology Experience

Sargent & Lundy is an industry leader in emission reduction retrofit projects for both air quality and water quality compliance. Our chemical engineering staff provides the process expertise to select the right technology for compliance and ensure it is designed to achieve emission targets while minimizing capital and O&M costs. We have extensive experience and knowledge in evaluating, specifying, and retrofitting air quality and water quality technologies, including:

  • Acid gas emission reduction technologies such as wet and dry flue gas desulfurization (FGD) and dry sorbent injection
  • NOx reduction technologies such as selective non-catalytic reduction and selective catalytic reduction
  • Particulate matter reduction technologies such as electrostatic precipitator upgrades and fabric filters
  • Mercury reduction technologies such as activated carbon injection, fuel additives, and FGD additives
  • Carbon dioxide reduction technologies such as carbon capture and sequestration and oxycombustion
  • Makeup water treatment technologies such as reverse osmosis, demineralization, and desalination systems
  • Raw water treatment technologies such as clarification and filtration
  • Wastewater treatment technologies such as physical/chemical and biological systems
  • Zero-liquid discharge technologies such as byproduct fixation and stabilization, spray dryer evaporators, and evaporation and crystallization of wastewater

Sargent & Lundy’s experience retrofitting environmental technologies as part of an EPC team or by providing balance-of-plant detailed design and owner’s engineering services provides us with a varied perspective and thorough understanding of these projects from conceptual design through compliance testing.


In addition to our engineering capabilities, Sargent & Lundy provides comprehensive environmental permitting and licensing services for power generating facilities, transmission lines, substations, and other power-related projects. On behalf of our clients, we have prepared permit applications for and successfully obtained the key types of permits and approvals necessary to site, construct, and operate power-related facilities. Recent projects include:

  • Major source air construction permits for new natural gas combined-cycle power plants and air permits for new simple-cycle combustion turbines and gas-fired reciprocating engines
  • Permits required to support coal-to-natural gas conversion projects
  • Operating permit modifications for the installation of air pollution control systems
  • Wastewater treatment and discharge permits
  • Local zoning approvals
  • Building permits
  • Site development permits for earthwork, grading, and storm water management
  • Rail road utility crossing and encroachment permitting

Read about our qualifications in permitting and licensing.

A benefit you will experience by using Sargent & Lundy for both detailed design and permitting support for projects is that a dedicated permit specialist is assigned to the engineering design team, eliminating information exchanges that occur between engineering companies and environmental consulting firms. In addition, our technical knowledge base supports establishing permit limits that include realistic margins to account for variations in operation, including startup, shutdown, and malfunctions.

Water Resources and Coastal

Sargent & Lundy’s water resources and coastal group provides services in hydrology, hydraulics, and coastal engineering to help clients find the optimal solution for all types of water-related projects. A multidisciplinary team with experience uniquely specialized in power plant projects can achieve the quality services for risk assessment, site evaluation, regulatory compliance, and detailed design that support complex engineering projects. The end results provide our clients both cost-effective and risk‐managed solutions.

Specialized Modeling

  • Multidimensional Hydrodynamic Modeling (ADCIRC, MIKE, DELFT3D, etc.)
  • Nearshore Spectral Wave Modeling (MIKE, CGWAVE, SWAN, STWAVE)
  • Two-dimensional (2D) Flood Risk Modeling (FLO-2D, TUFLOW, DELFT3D, HEC-RAS 2D)
  • Multidimensional Thermal Plume Dispersion Modeling (CORMIX, DELFT3D, MIKE)
  • Water Quality and Sediment Transport Modeling (DELFT3D, MIKE)
  • Watershed Modeling (HEC-HMS, HSPF, GSSHA)

External Flood Hazard Evaluation

  • Flood Hazard Modeling—Deterministic and Probabilistic Risk Assessment
  • Evaluation of Plant-specific Flood Protection Mitigation Measures
  • External Hydrodynamic Force Evaluation on Safety-related Structures

Nuclear License Application

  • Hydrologic Safety Analysis for ESP and COLA
    • PMP, PMF, PMSS, PMH, PMT, LIP Studies
    • Potential Dam Failure
    • Accidental Releases of Radioactive Liquid Effluents in Surface Water Systems
    • Water Resource Evaluation
    • Ice-Induced Flood
    • Channel Migration and Diversion
  • Environment Standard Review for ESP and COLA
    • Hydrologic Alteration, Water Use Impact, Water Quality
    • Cooling System Impacts, Including Intake and Discharge System

Power Plant Siting

  • Hydrologic Site Characterization
  • Cooling Water Canals and Reservoir
  • Evaluation of Outfall/Intake Location and Design
  • Channel Geomorphology
  • Water Availability and Low Water Impact
  • Metocean and Hydrodynamic Analysis for Offshore Wind Power Station
  • Hydrologic Siting Evaluation of Onshore Wind and Solar Power Station
  • Hydrologic and Hydraulic Feasibility Assessment of Hydroelectric Dam

Intake and Outfall

  • Site Drainage Analysis
  • Erosion and Sediment Control Studies
  • Detention Pond and Sump Design

Coastal Engineering

  • Wave Modeling and Data Analysis
  • Storm Surge and Hurricane Modeling
  • Tsunami Impact Evaluation
  • Shoreline Protection and Breakwater Design Evaluation
  • Hydraulic Evaluation of Coastal Structures
  • Sediment Transport Modeling

Read our white paper on Storm Surge Protection

Sargent & Lundy provides water resources and coastal consulting services for hundreds of electric power plant projects with diverse challenges and in a variety of locations. Depending on each client’s needs, we provide services as stand‐alone projects or as an integral parts of our full scope of services from planning and detailed engineering design to plant operation. Our broad range of experience is based on present‐day methodology and tools, making us uniquely qualified to solve technical challenges and manage water‐related risks specific to power plant design and construction.